|Bosnia and Herzegovina||3,280,819||Southern Europe|
|Czech Republic (Czechia)||10,708,981||Eastern Europe|
|Holy See||801||Southern Europe|
|North Macedonia||2,083,374||Southern Europe|
|San Marino||33,931||Southern Europe|
|United Kingdom||67,886,011||Northern Europe|
List of European Countries
- Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë).
Religion: As a legacy of nearly five centuries of Ottoman rule, Albania is a predominantly Muslim country
1 – Ferges – Summer Stew
2 – Tarator – Cold Yoghurt Appetizer
3 – Byrek – Albanian Pie
4 – Ashure – Dessert Porridge of Grains, Fruit, and Nuts
Andorra is a tiny, independent principality situated between France and Spain in the Pyrenees mountains. It’s known for its ski resorts and a tax-haven status that encourages duty-free shopping. Capital of Andorra is Andorra la Vella.
Language and Cultures
Andorra has traditionally had a strong affinity with the region of Catalonia in northern Spain. Andorra’s official language is Catalan (Spanish and French are also spoken); its institutions are based in Catalonian law, and a large proportion of the Spanish immigrants (or their descendants) in Andorra are Catalan. Most Andorrans are Roman Catholic; Andorra is part of the diocese of Urgel. Almost nine-tenths of the population is classified as urban, and half of residents are foreign nationals, mainly from Spain, France, and Portugal.
- Cargols a la lluna
- Austria: Austria, largely mountainous landlocked country of south-central Europe. Together with Switzerland, it forms what has been characterized as the neutral core of Europe, notwithstanding Austria’s full membership since 1995 in the supranational European Union (EU).
In the lowlands and the hilly eastern regions, the median temperature ranges from about 30 °F (−1 °C) in January to about 68 °F (20 °C) in July. In those regions above 10,000 feet (3,000 meters), by contrast, the temperature range is between about 12 °F (−11 °C) in January, with a snow cover of approximately 10 feet (3 meters), and about 36 °F (2 °C) in July, with roughly 5 feet (1.5 meters) of snow cover.
Austrian culture is a part of the mainstream of Germanic culture that is shared with Germany and Switzerland. But what has shaped it and dominated it, what has made it essentially Austrian, are the Habsburg empire and the Christian church.
- Viennese Apfelstrudel: Austrian National Food
- Wiener Schnitzel: Fried Delight
- Vienna Sausage: Austrian Authenticity
- Knödel: Flavorful Dumpling
- Tafelspitz: Boiled Beef
- Belarus: Belarus, landlocked country of eastern Europe. Until it became independent in 1991, Belarus, formerly known as Belorussia or White Russia, was the smallest of the three Slavic republics included in the Soviet Union (the larger two being Russia and Ukraine).
Belarus has a cool continental climate moderated by maritime influences from the Atlantic Ocean. Average January temperatures range from the mid-20s F (about −4 °C) in the southwest to the upper teens F (about −8 °C) in the northeast, but thaw days are frequent; correspondingly, the frost-free period decreases from more than 170 days in the southwest to 130 in the northeast. Maximum temperatures in July are generally in the mid-60s F (about 18 °C). Rainfall is moderate, though higher than over most of the vast Russian Plain of eastern Europe, and ranges from about 21 inches (530 mm) on the lowlands to some 28 inches (700 mm) on the higher morainic ridges. Maximum rainfall occurs from June to August.0
Belarus enjoys a rich cultural and artistic heritage that dates back many centuries, taking in several significant schools of art and architecture and producing many unique musical and literary works. Fine art in Belarus varies in style, direction and genre. The most captivating work by Belarus artists in different periods can be seen in museums across the country.
- Sashni – full of potatoes, vegetables, meat and dairy products
- Zhurek- zhurek is a soup made of oats and dark bread.
- Machanka – Machanka is both a soup and a stew that consists of homemade sausages.
Belgium, country of northwestern Europe. It is one of the smallest and most densely populated European countries, and it has been, since its independence in 1830, a representative democracy headed by a hereditary constitutional monarch. Initially, Belgium had a unitary form of government. In the 1980s and ’90s, however, steps were taken to turn Belgium into a federal state with powers shared among the regions of Flanders, Wallonia, and the Brussels-Capital Region.
The annual mean temperature is around 50 °F (10 °C). Brussels, which is roughly in the middle of the country, has a mean minimum temperature of just below 32 °F (0 °C) in January and a mean maximum of about 71 °F (22 °C) in July.
- Belgian Fries
- . Grey shrimp Croquettes
- Bosnia and Herzegovina:
Bosnia and Herzegovina, country situated in the western Balkan Peninsula of Europe. The larger region of Bosnia occupies the northern and central parts of the country, and Herzegovina occupies the south and southwest. These historical regions do not correspond with the two autonomous political entities that were established by the internationally brokered Dayton Accords of 1995.
The weather in the Bosnia region resembles that of the southern Austrian highlands—generally mild, though apt to be bitterly cold in winter. In Banja Luka the coldest month is January, with an average temperature of about 32 °F (0 °C), and the warmest month is July, which averages about 72 °F (22 °C). During January and February Banja Luka receives the least amount of precipitation, and in May and June it experiences the heaviest rainfall. In Mostar, situated along the Neretva River, the coldest month is January, averaging about 42 °F (6 °C), and the warmest month is July, averaging about 78 °F (26 °C)
The official language is Bosnian, a Slavic language that used to be known as Serbo-Croatian. According to ethnic and political affiliation, Bosnians may speak Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian. At school, both Cyrillic and Latin scripts are taught, which are used in the Federation and Serb Republic.
Bulgaria, officially Republic of Bulgaria, Bulgarian Republika Bŭlgariya, country occupying the eastern portion of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. Founded in the 7th century, Bulgaria is one of the oldest states on the European continent. It is intersected by historically important routes from northern and eastern Europe to the Mediterranean basin and from western and central Europe to the Middle East. Before the creation of the Bulgarian state, the empires of ancient Rome, Greece, and Byzantium were strong presences, and people and goods traveled the land with frequency.
With the reforms of the 1990s, following the communist period of state-sponsored atheism, full freedom of religion was established. There is no official religion, and the majority of religious Bulgarians are adherents of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Minority religious groups include Muslims, Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and Gregorian Armenians. Within the Protestant minority are Great Commission Christians, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. The Catholic minority are followers of the Bulgarian Catholic Church, which, in contrast to the Roman Catholic Church, uses a Byzantine rite in liturgy.
Because Bulgaria’s population is largely homogeneous, the degree of cultural variation even at the regional level is small. The state encourages cultural development at all levels of society and supports the dissemination of culture, particularly through schools, libraries, museums, publishing, and state radio and television. Bulgaria’s numerous theatre troupes, opera companies, and orchestras began fusing together into larger, more competitive units in the 1990s.
- Banitsa: This tasty dish is a traditional Bulgarian pastry made by layering a combination of beaten eggs and bits of cheese amongst filo pastry
- Tarator: It is commonly made with fresh cucumbers, walnuts, garlic, Bulgarian yoghurt, dill, herbs and vinegar or lemon.
- Meshana Skara : It is a combination of grilled meat in various forms and versions
- Shopska Salata: Bulgarian salad made with chopped cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers, fresh parsley and grated white cheese.
Croatia, country located in the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is a small yet highly geographically diverse crescent-shaped country. Its capital is Zagreb, located in the north.
The average temperature range is between about 65 °F (about 18 °C) in June and the upper 20s F (about −2 °C) in January. Considerable rainfall, turning to snow in winter, is characteristic of the region.
- Peka: This traditional Croatian dish is a blend of vegetables, including potatoes, and meat sprinkled with herbs and drizzled with olive oil.
- Black Risotto: It’s made from rice, onion, cuttlefish ink, cuttlefish, olive oil, and red wine.
- Štrukli: It’s a delicious pastry filled with sour cream and cottage cheese.
- Czech Republic (Czechia)
Czech Republic, also called Czechia, landlocked country located in central Europe. It comprises the historical provinces of Bohemia and Moravia along with the southern tip of Silesia, collectively often called the Czech Lands. In 2016 the country adopted the name “Czechia” as a shortened, informal name for the Czech Republic.
The territory of the Czech Republic traditionally has been between the German and Slav lands, and Czech cultural traditions are a mixture of both. Influences from farther afield also have been strong. Visually the most striking influences are Italian—in Renaissance and Baroque architecture, for instance—while literature, music, the visual arts, and popular culture also are indebted to a variety of external influences. Most of the Western cultural influences on the Czech Lands have passed through a German filter, and for this reason Czech traditions in popular culture are marked by a strong sense of national identity.
- Svíčková na smetaně (marinated sirloin): This popular dish consists of braised beef covered with a thick, creamy sauce of parsley root and carrots.
- Vepřo knedlo zelo (roasted pork): is basically roasted pork with dumplings and a side of pickled cabbage.
- Sekaná pečeně (baked mincemeat): The Czech version of meatloaf is made combining half pork and half beef mince and then adding slices of bacon, onions and garlic.
The Czech Republic has a typically European continental climate with cold, snowy winters and warm (sometimes wet) summers. Winters (November to February) can get very chilly; January is the coldest month, with daytime temperatures far below zero and strong, cold winds. Snowfall can be heavy; in the low-lying areas the yearly average of snow days is less than 40; in the mountainous areas it reaches 120. Summer temperatures average between 68°F (20°C) and 77°F (25°C) but often reach as high as 86°F (30°C). There is plenty of sun in summer but there are also frequent thunderstorms. The capital, Prague, experiences average temperatures ranging from 25°F (-4°C) during winter, to 73°F (23°C) during summer.
The best time to visit the Czech Republic is from May to September when days are warm and nights cool. The European summer (June to September) is the tourist high season, but spring and autumn can also be rewarding times to visit, particularly if travelers prefer to avoid the tourist crowds. Although the winters are cold, the Czech landscapes do look strikingly beautiful when it is snowy, so every season has its advantages for tourists
Denmark, country occupying the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland), which extends northward from the centre of continental western Europe, and an archipelago of more than 400 islands to the east of the peninsula. Jutland makes up more than two-thirds of the country’s total land area; at its northern tip is the island of Vendsyssel-Thy (1,809 square miles [4,685 square km]), separated from the mainland by the Lim Fjord. The largest of the country’s islands are Zealand (Sjælland; 2,715 square miles [7,031 square km]), Vendsyssel-Thy, and Funen (Fyn; 1,152 square miles [2,984 square km]). Along with Norway and Sweden, Denmark is a part of the northern European region known as Scandinavia. The country’s capital, Copenhagen (København), is located primarily on Zealand; the second largest city, Århus, is the major urban centre of Jutland.
Religion of Denmark
Religious freedom is an essentially unchallenged value in Denmark. Roman Catholic churches and Jewish synagogues have long existed in the larger cities, and the first mosque in the country was built in 1967. By the early 21st century Islam had become an increasingly important minority religion, and a significant number of Danes were not religious at all. Nevertheless, the overwhelming majority of Danes remained at least nominally members of the state church, the Evangelical Lutheran People’s Church of Denmark .
- Smørrebrødw7 – Open Sandwich
- Hønsekødssuppe – Chicken Broth Soup
- Wienerbrød – Danish Pastries
- Pølser – Hot Dog
Climate of Denmark
Denmark experiences changeable weather because it is located in the temperate zone at the meeting point of diverse air masses from the Atlantic, the Arctic, and eastern Europe. The west coast faces the inhospitable North Sea, but the terminal section of the warm Gulf Stream (the North Atlantic Current) moderates the climate. Lakes may freeze and snow frequently falls during the cold winters, yet the mean temperature in February, the coldest month, is about 32 °F (0 °C), which is roughly 12 °F (7 °C) higher than the worldwide average for that latitude. Summers are mild, featuring episodes of cloudy weather interrupted by sunny days. The mean temperature in July, which is the warmest month, is approximately 60 °F (16 °C).
Estonia, country in northeastern Europe, the northernmost of the three Baltic states. Estonia’s area includes some 1,500 islands and islets; the two largest of these islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, are off mainland Estonia’s west coast.
The temperate and humid climate of Estonia differs sharply from the climates of regions to the east (in Russia) at the same latitude. The mean temperature is 17 to 23 °F (−8 to −5 °C) in January and 61 to 63 °F (16 to 17 °C) in July. Annual precipitation is about 24 to 28 inches (600 to 700 mm), which, coupled with negligible evaporation and low relief, leads to waterlogging. The Estonian climate is generally favorable for agriculture.
Estonian, the official language of the country, is a member of the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family. More than two-thirds of the populace speak Estonian as a first language; about an additional one-fourth speak Russian as their first language (mostly in the northeast), though few Estonians over age 60 or under age 20 speak the language.
- Leivasupp : s usually made with soaked and mashed bread, raisins, fruit juice, cinnamon, and sugar. It is typically prepared with a traditional, dense rye bread, and is often complemented by milk, cream, fresh fruit, and nuts.
- Rosolje: It is prepared with pickled herring and bite-sized pieces of beets and potatoes, all Finland is one of the most ethnically and culturally homogeneous countries in Europe. Nevertheless, Finns have been quick to incorporate ideas and impulses from Russia, elsewhere in Scandinavia, and continental Europe, particularly in the arts, music, architecture, and the sciences, but in each instance these influences have evolved into a form that is typically Finniscoated in a refreshing, creamy dressing
Finland, country located in northern Europe. Finland is one of the world’s most northern and geographically remote countries and is subject to a severe climate. Nearly two-thirds of Finland is blanketed by thick woodlands, making it the most densely forested country in Europe. Finland forms a symbolic northern border between western and eastern Europe: dense wilderness and Russia to the east, the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden to the west.
The part of Finland north of the Arctic Circle suffers extremely severe and prolonged winters. Temperatures can fall as low as −22 °F (−30 °C). In these latitudes the snow never melts from the north-facing mountain slopes, but in the short summer (Lapland has about two months of the midnight sun), from May to July, temperatures can reach as high as 80 °F (27 °C).
Finland has two national languages, Finnish and Swedish, and is officially bilingual. Nearly nine-tenths of the population speak Finnish; the language is an important nationalist feature, although it is spoken in strong regional dialects. The Swedish-speaking population is found mainly in the coastal area in the south, southwest, and west and in the Åland Islands (where Swedish is the sole official language)
Finland is one of the most ethnically and culturally homogeneous countries in Europe. Nevertheless, Finns have been quick to incorporate ideas and impulses from Russia, elsewhere in Scandinavia, and continental Europe, particularly in the arts, music, architecture, and the sciences, but in each instance these influences have evolved into a form that is typically Finnish
- Karjalanpiirakka (rice pies
- Ruisleipa (rye bread)
- Leipajuusto (bread cheese)
- Kalakukko (fish pie)
France, officially French Republic, French France or République Française, country of northwestern Europe. Historically and culturally among the most important nations in the Western world, France has also played a highly significant role in international affairs, with former colonies in every corner of the globe. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Alps and the Pyrenees, France has long provided a geographic, economic, and linguistic bridge joining northern and southern Europe. It is Europe’s most important agricultural producer and one of the world’s leading industrial powers.
Climate of France
The climate of France is generally favorable to cultivation. Most of France lies in the southern part of the temperate zone, although the subtropical zone encompasses its southern fringe. All of France is considered to be under the effect of oceanic influences, moderated by the North Atlantic Drift on the west and the Mediterranean Sea on the south. Average annual temperatures decline to the north, with Nice on the Côte d’Azure at 59 °F (15 °C) and Lille on the northern border at 50 °F (10 °C). Rainfall is brought mainly by westerly winds from the Atlantic and is characterized by cyclonic depressions.
French is the national language, spoken and taught everywhere. Brogues and dialects are widespread in rural areas, however, and many people tend to conserve their regional linguistic customs either through tradition or through a voluntary and deliberate return to a specific regional dialect.
France has played a central role in European culture. With the advent of colonialism and global trade, France reached a worldwide market, and French artistic, culinary, and sartorial styles influenced the high and popular cultures of nations around the globe. Today French customs, styles, and theories remain an influential export, as well as a point of great national pride, even as French intellectuals worry that the rise of globalism has prompted, in the words of the historian Pierre Nora, “the rapid disappearance of our national memory.”
- Salmon En Papillote
- Boeuf Bourguignon
- Quiche Lorraine
country of north-central Europe, traversing the continent’s main physical divisions, from the outer ranges of the Alps northward across the varied landscape of the Central German Uplands and then across the North German Plain.
Climate of Germany
Germany is favored with a generally temperate climate, especially in view of its northerly latitudes and the distance of the larger portions of its territory from the warming influence of the North Atlantic Current. Extremely high temperatures in the summer and deep, prolonged frost in the winter are rare. These conditions, together with a more-than-abundant and well-distributed amount of rainfall, afford ideal conditions for raising crops. As throughout western Europe in general, however, Germany’s climate is subject to quick variations when the moderate westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean collide with the cold air masses moving in from northeastern Europe. Whereas in the open coastlands near the North and Baltic seas the maritime component prevails, continental elements gain in importance moving toward the east and southeast.
The official language of Germany is German, with over 95% of the population speaking German as their first language. Minority languages include Sorbian, spoken by 0.09% in the east of Germany and North Frisian spoken in Nordfriesland10,000 people, or 0.01%, who also speak German.
Germany has a unique culture that has been shaped by major intellectuals and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker (the country of poets and thinkers). German culture originated with the Germanic tribes, the earliest evidence of Germanic culture dates to the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany and Denmark.
Sauerbraten is regarded as one Germany’s national dishes and there are several regional variations in Franconia, Thuringia, Rhineland, Saarland, Silesia and Swabia. This pot roast takes quite a while to prepare, but the results, often served as Sunday family dinner, are truly worth the work.
Greece is a country in southeastern Europe with thousands of islands throughout the Aegean and Ionian seas. Influential in ancient times, it’s often called the cradle of Western civilization. Athens, its capital, retains landmarks including the 5th-century B.C. Acropolis citadel with the Parthenon temple. Greece is also known for it’s beaches, from the black sands of Santorini to the party resorts of Mykonos.
Greece has a Mediterranean climate, with mild and wet winters in the southern lowland and island regions and cold winters with strong snowfalls in the mountainous areas in the central and northern regions and hot, dry summers.
98% of the Greeks are Christian Orthodox. The rest of the population are Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Jewish. Greece and Russia are the only countries to have such a big proportion of Orthodox Christians. The Orthodox Church forms the third largest branch of Christianity, after the Roman Catholic and the Protestant.
Fun Facts about Greece
- Democracy was born in Greece.
- Greek Is the Oldest Language In the World That’s Still Used.
- Greece Inspired the Olympics.
- There Are Still Ancient Greek Temples in Greece.
- Ancient City-States.
- It’s Common for Family Units to Live Together for a Long Time.
Modern Greek (also known as Neo-Hellenic): Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it.
Don’t leave Greece without trying…
- A mainstay of any Greek meal is classic dips such as tzatziki (yogurt, cucumber and garlic), melitzanosalata (aubergine), and fava (creamy split pea purée). …
- Olives and olive oil. …
- Grilled meat. …
- Fresh fish. …
- Courgette balls (kolokythokeftedes) …
17.) The Holy See
is the universal government of the Catholic Church and operates from Vatican City State, a sovereign, independent territory…
The term Holy See comes from the Latin Sancta Sedges, meaning “Holy Chair,” and originates from the enthronement ceremony of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.
The location of the Holy See in Rome dates to the foundation of a church by the Roman emperor Constantine I in the 4th century. Dedicated to St. Peter, the church was built near a cemetery on a hill known as Mons Vaticanus (Latin) or Colle Vaticano (Italian), where Christians believed St. Peter had been buried.
Rome’s climate is mild and the area is noted for its frequent sunny days. Summers are hot (and sometimes humid) and winters are cold (overcoats necessary).
Holy See culture
This tiny state requires its visitors to show reverence and respect toward the Roman Catholic Church. This implies sleeveless or navel- or bust-revealing shirts, as well as those which feature profanities; shorts, above-knee length skirts, and excessive jewelry, are not allowed to be worn within Holy see territory.
Food in the Holy See is largely Italian fare, consisting of various pasta, polenta, and risotto dishes. Visitors can start their meal with an antipasto, or appetizer, followed by a small first course and a second main course.
List of Must-Try Foods in Vatican City
- Eggplant parmigiana (not served with pasta-true Italian style) Eggplant parmigiana. …
- Tofu Insalata. Tofu Insalata. …
- Zucchini with Rich Ricotta. Zucchini with Rich Ricotta. …
The Holy See, the entity with authority over the state (yet legally distinct), uses Latin as its official language and Italian as its main working language in administrative and diplomatic affairs. French is also sometimes used as a diplomatic language.
Hungary in its modern (post-1946) borders roughly corresponds to the Great Hungarian Plain (the Pannonian Basin) in Central Europe. During the Iron Age, it was located at the crossroads between the cultural spheres of the Celtic tribes (such as the Scordisci, Boii and Veneti), Dalmatian tribes (such as the Dalmatae, Histri and Liburni) and the Germanic tribes (such as the Lugii and Marcomanni).
The name “Pannonian” comes from Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire. Only the western part of the territory (the so-called Transdanubia) of modern Hungary formed part of Pannonia. The Roman control collapsed with the Hunnic invasions of 370–410, and Pannonia was part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom during the late 5th to mid 6th century, succeeded by the Avar Khaganate (6th to 9th centuries). The Magyar invasion took place during the 9th century.
The Magyars were Christianized at the end of the 10th century, and the Christian Kingdom of Hungary was established in 1000 under King Saint Stephen, ruled by the Árpád dynasty for the following three centuries.
Hungarian culture is characterised by its distinctive cuisine, folk traditions, poetry, theatre, religious customs, music and traditional embroidered garments. Hungarian folk traditions range from decorated pottery, embroidery, and carvings to the lively celebrations of folk music and dance.
Hungarian people like to meet and welcome people from abroad and treat them as guests. Most Hungarian families consist of two parents and one or two children. Urban families are typically smaller than rural families, who may have three or four children. In Hungarian culture, families follow a strict daily schedule.
The official language of Hungarian is spoken by 98% of the 10.3m population. Minority languages have become more prominent in recent years, and they include German, Croatian, Romani, Slovak, Romanian, Serbian and Slovene.
Hungarian ( magyar nyelv (help·info)) is a Uralic language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighboring countries that used to belong to it.
Hungary has a continental climate, with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent showers and frigid to cold snowy winters. The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest mean temperatures reflect the latest climatology…
There are four seasons in Hungary: winter (December, January, February), spring (March, April, May), summer (June, July, August), and autumn (September, October, November).
Traditional Hungarian Food
- Goulash (Gulyás)
- Fisherman’s Soup (Halászlé)
- Chicken Paprikash (Csirke Paprikás)
- Meat Pancakes (Hortobagyi Palacsinta)
- Stuffed Cabbage Leaves (Töltött Káposzta)
- Meat Stew (Pörkölt)
- Sour Cherry Soup (Meggyleves)
- Jókai Bean Soup (Jókai Bableves)
Iceland was founded more than 1,000 years ago during the Viking age of exploration and settled by a mixed Norse and Celtic population. The early settlement, made up primarily of Norwegian seafarers and adventurers, fostered further excursions to Greenland and the coast of North America (which the Norse called Vinland).
Icelandic is the official language of Iceland, spoken the majority of inhabitants of Iceland. It’s related to the other Nordic languages and is closest to Faroese.
Thanks to the Gulf Stream, Iceland enjoys a cool, temperate maritime climate with refreshing summers and mild winters. Summers are pleasant, with average temperatures between 10-13 °C (50-55 °F) and daylight that extends far into the night. Winters are mild with an average temperature around 0 °C (32 °F).
Iceland is a Nordic country, which means it has strong ties to the ancient Vikings. Icelanders are proud of this heritage and the many customs that come along with it, particularly in terms of the language which still has close ties to the Old Norse language that would have been spoken by early Viking settlers.
TOP 10 foods to try in Iceland
- Why Food Tasting Will Be the Best Part of Your Iceland Trip.
- Skyr – The Icelandic Yogurt.
- Slow Roasted Lamb.
- Hákarl – Fermented Shark.
- Icelandic Lamb Soup – Kjötsúpa.
- Icelandic Fish.
- Icelandic Hot Dog.
- Rúgbrauð – Dark Rye Bread from a Hot Spring.
The first evidence of human presence in Ireland dates to around 33,000 years ago, with further findings dating the presence of homo sapiens to around 10,500 to 7,000 BC. The receding of the ice after the Younger Dryas cold phase of the Quaternary around 9700 BC, heralds the beginning of Prehistoric Ireland, which includes the archaeological periods known as the Mesolithic, the Neolithic from about 4000 BC and the Copper Age beginning around 2500 BC with the arrival of the Beaker Culture. The Irish Bronze Age proper begins around 2000 BC and ends with the arrival of the Iron Age of the Celtic Hallstatt culture, beginning about 600 BC. The subsequent La Tène culture brought new styles and practices by 300 BC.
The climate of Ireland is mild, humid and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Ireland’s climate is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system, a classification it shares with most of northwest Europe.
Ireland enjoys a temperate maritime climate, due mainly to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and the presence of the Gulf Stream. Known as the Emerald Isle, Ireland is so green because it receives a lot of precipitation. Typical winter weather in Ireland is clouds and rain with the occasional sunny spell.
Top 10 Irish foods to try…
- Soda bread. Every family in Ireland has its own recipe for soda bread, hand-written on flour-crusted note paper and wedged in among the cookery books. …
- Irish stew. …
- Colcannon and champ. …
- Boiled bacon and cabbage. …
- Smoked salmon. …
- Black and white pudding.
Originally the culture was purely Gaelic, but then it was influenced by the English, Tudor English, Scots, Normans, and Vikings. Northern Ireland’s culture was heavily influenced by the Scots. But, at its core, Irish culture has taken these elements and folded them into her strong, Gaelic heart.
While Ireland has its own language and distinct cultural identity, English is the universal spoken language and is one of the reasons why so many multinational businesses locate their European base here. It also makes Ireland a great choice for international students.
Italy’s first societies emerged around 1200 B.C. Around 800 B.C. Greeks settled in the south and Etruscans arose in central Italy. By the sixth century B.C., the Etruscans had created a group of states called Etruria. Meanwhile, Latin and Sabine people south of Etruria merged to form a strong city-state called Rome.
Interesting facts about Italy?
- Italy is one of Western Europe’s youngest countries. …
- Rome is over 2,000 years old. …
- The country was under a dictatorship for 20 years. …
- Italy’s last king ruled for just 36 days. …
- Italy’s flag is green, white and red. …
- Tourists throw €1,000,000 into the Trevi Fountain each year. …
- 13 of Shakespeare’s 38 plays are set in Italy.
Although Italian is the official language of Italy, it’s not widely known that the country boasts some 34 spoken languages and related dialects. The majority of these languages are Romance-based, meaning that they evolved from Vulgar Latin. These include Sicilian, Neapolitan, Sardinian, and more.
Italy’s climate is formally divided in four types, characterized by specific features: Alpine climate, dominant in Alps and northern and central Apennines, characterized by night and winter low temperatures and moist summer; Mediterranean climate, in the island and in the southern Italy, characterized by mild …
Ragu Alla Bolognese, or Bolognese sauce, is considered to be the national dish of Italy since it is used widely in Italian cuisine with many traditional Italian dishes and some of the best Italian dishes (spaghetti, tagliatelle, pappardelle, fettuccine…) across Italy.
Italian culture is the amalgamation of thousands of years of heritage and tradition, tracing its roots back to the Ancient Roman Empire and beyond. Italian culture is steeped in the arts, family, architecture, music and food. Home of the Roman Empire and its legendary figures such as Julius Caesar and Nero, it was also a major center of the Renaissance and the birthplace of fascism under Benito Mussolini. Culture on the Italian peninsula has flourished for centuries. Here is a brief overview of Italian customs and traditions as we know them today.
Latvia was originally settled by the ancient people known as Balts. In the 9th century the Balts came under the overlordship of the Varangians, or Vikings, but a more lasting dominance was established over them by their German-speaking neighbours to the west, who Christianized Latvia in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Nearly all Latvians speak three languages well. In addition to their native tongue, Russian and English are widely spoken, even in the more remote areas.
Latvia is located in the temperate climate zone; relatively flat terrain, the proximity to the sea and air masses from the Atlantic Ocean influence climate in the country. Climate is mild and humid with four explicit seasons.
The most popular traditions of Līgo are singing Līgo songs, picking different sorts of herbs, making wreaths, bonfires, eating cheese and drinking beer. Ancient Latvians believed that the herbs, which were gathered on Midsummer Day, would conquer evil spirits and bring benediction and health to people.
Latvians are polite and courteous. They can be extremely reserved. They do not readily smile, especially at strangers, and are not comfortable making small talk. They often appear to have little difficulty accepting what would be considered awkward silences in other cultures.
The main religion traditionally practiced in Latvia is Christianity. As of 2019, it is the largest religion (64%), though only about 7% of the population attends religious services regularly.
Traditional Food in Latvia
- #1 Grey peas and bacon.
- #2 Rye bread.
- #3 Smoked fish.
- #4 Cabbage soup.
- #5 Potato pancakes.
- #6 Latvian meatballs.
- #7 Rye bread soup.
- #8 Pelmeni.
The principality of Liechtenstein, consisting of these two lordships, was founded in 1719 and remained part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was included in the Confederation of the Rhine from 1806 to 1815 and in the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866. In 1866 Liechtenstein became independent.
The Principality of Liechtenstein (German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a small, doubly landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to its west and by Austria to its east. Mountainous, it is a winter sports resort, though it is perhaps best-known as a tax haven.
German, or more precisely High German, is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Western Europe and Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the Italian province of South Tyrol.
Liechtenstein has a continental climate, i.e., the weather varies considerably over the course of the year…
- Carnival in Liechtenstein. …
- Liechtenstein national holiday. …
- Ceremonial cattle drive. …
- Christmas market. …
- The annual fair. …
- Penitential processions.
Much of Liechtenstein’s culture is directly derived from surrounding European influences. This includes the language, spirituality and art, but locals get somewhat insulted if travelers called them Swiss, Austrian or German as they are proud of their independent nation. The country is a tremendously religious state.
‘Ribel’, also called ‘Rebl’, is probably the most traditional dish in Liechtenstein. Filling and healthy, this cornmeal-based delicacy was very important part of the poor population’s diet in years gone by.
Common foods and dishes
- Asparagus is frequently used.
- Hafalaab – a soup with ham or bacon and cornmeal dumplings.
- Kasknopfl – small dumplings topped with cheese or onions.
- Muesli – uncooked rolled oats, fruit and nuts that have been soaked in water or juice.
- Ribel – a grain.
During the 15th century, Lithuania was one of the biggest countries in Europe, with borders up to the Black Sea. Locals are also proud that the country has overcome numerous periods of hard times over the centuries, including the Crusades and the Soviet occupation…
Lithuanians are an Indo-European people belonging to the Baltic group. They are the only branch within the group that managed to create a state entity in premodern times. The Prussians, overrun by the Teutonic Order in the 13th century, became extinct by the 18th century. The Latvians to the north were conquered during the first three decades of the 13th century by the Order of the Brothers of the Sword (this order became a branch of the Teutonic Order in 1237). The Lithuanians, protected by a dense primeval forest and extensive marshland, successfully resisted German pressure.
Lithuanian belongs to the family of Baltic languages. Currently there are only two Baltic languages spoken in the world: Lithuanian and Latvian but in the past there were more, such as: Galindian, old Prussian, Yotvingian, Skalvian, Selonian, Semigallian.
Lithuania has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Köppen climate classification). Average temperatures on the coast are 1.6 °C (34.9 °F) in January and 17.8 °C (64.0 °F) in July. In Vilnius the average temperatures are 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) in January and 18.1 °C (64.6 °F) in July.
- Singing traditional folk music & dancing until sunset.
- Enjoying Lithuanian food.
- Jumping over bonfires.
- Young women washing their face with fresh dew in the morning.
- Searching to find the magic fern blossom at midnight. …
- Floating flower wreaths and garlands on the lake.
Culture of Lithuania combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the unique Lithuanian language, with Nordic cultural aspects and Christian traditions resulting from historical ties with Poland
Traditional Lithuanian Food – Best Lithuanian Dishes
- #1 Fried Bread Sticks.
- #2 Cepelinai.
- #3 Kibinai.
- #4 Cold Beetroot Soup.
- #5 Lithuanian cheese with honey.
- #6 Lithuanian Bread.
- #7 Potato Croquettes.
- #8 Herring.
Luxembourg became an independent entity in 963, when Siegfried, count de Ardennes, exchanged his lands for a small but strategically placed Roman castle lying along the Alzette River. This castle became the cradle of Luxembourg, whose name is itself derived from that of the castle, Lucilinburhuc (“Little Fortress”).
The linguistic situation in Luxembourg is characterized by the practice and the recognition of three official languages: French, German, and the national …
Luxembourg, a small country between Belgium, France and Germany, has a moderately continental climate, with cold winters and mild summers.
Luxembourg is a country of traditions which celebrates its rites and customs throughout the seasons. Luxembourg national day, the “Schueberfouer” fair, the Christmas markets, the end of the winter and carnival are all reasons to celebrate, eat well and share quality time with friends and family.
Even though Luxembourg is part of the European Union, Luxembourgers have strong national pride and they value their independence and autonomy. Personal values revolve around modesty, friendship, and above all family.
Popular Luxembourg Foods
- Luxembourgish Esaü Soup. …
- Bouneschlupp. …
- Blood Sausage. Träipen. …
- Freshwater Fish Dish. Friture de la Moselle. …
- Gromperekichelcher. …
- Pork Dish. Jambon en croute. …
- Prosciutto, Jamon, Jambon. …
- Pork Dish.
Malta’s prehistory ends in around 700 BC, fell in 218 BC to the Roman Republic. The island was acquired by the Eastern Romans or Byzantines in the 6th century AD, who were expelled by Aghlabids following a siege in 870 AD.
Malta is a popular tourist destination and known for its warm climate and breathtaking landscapes that serve as locations for major film productions. The archipelago is home to some of the oldest temples in the world, such as the Megalithic Temples of Maltawhen
the islands were colonized by the Phoenicians. They ruled the islands until they
Maltese, a language of Semitic origin written in the Latin script, is the national language of Malta. Over the centuries, it has incorporated many words derived from English, Italian and French. Italian is also widely spoken.
Malta’s climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild, rainy winters and hot, sunny summers.
Malta is an archipelago located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, consisting of three main islands, Malta (Malta), Gozo (Ghawdex) and Comino (Kemmuna), as well as some uninhabited islands.
In the capital, Valletta, the average temperature ranges from 12.5 °C (54.5 °F) in February to 27.5 °C (81.5 °F) in August.
Traditions and customs only the locals would understand in Malta
- 1) Boċċi. The word boċċi means marbles, but in Malta this refers to an old street game that is played with wooden balls in various sizes. …
- 2) Festa. …
- 3) Festa Fireworks. …
- 4) Mnarja Folk Festival. …
- 5) Statue bearers.
Britain found in Malta an ancient, Christian culture, strongly influenced by neighbouring Italy and Sicily, and loyal to the Roman Catholic Church.
Present-day Maltese culture is essentially Latin European with the recent British legacy also in evidence. In the early part of its history, Malta was also exposed to Semitic-speaking communities. The present-day legacy of this is linguistic rather than cultural
Traditional Maltese food is rustic and based on the seasons. Look out for Lampuki Pie (fish pie), Rabbit Stew, Bragioli (beef olives), Kapunata, (Maltese version of ratatouille), and widow’s soup, which includes a small round of Gbejniet (sheep or goat’s cheese).
The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded. The principality was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire from 1538 until the 19th century.
Most of Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman
Moldovan was declared the official language of Moldova in Article 13 of the constitution adopted in 1994, while the 1991 Declaration of Independence of Moldova used the name Romanian. In 2003, the Moldovan parliament adopted a law defining Moldovan and Romanian as glottonyms for the same language.
The climate of Moldova is moderately continental, characterized by relatively mild winters with little snow, long warm summers and low humidity. The average annual temperatures vary between 6.3°C in the North to 12.3°C in the South. Warm weather lasts about 190 days.
The traditions in Moldova are primarily related to national music, dances, songs, and food, wine, as well as ornamentation arts and crafts. Many of the modern traditions are a product of crossing between geto-daci culture and the culture of other civilizations like the Greeks, the Slavs, and most of all the Romans.
Moldova’s traditional folk culture is very rich. The ancient folk ballads, such as “Mioriţa” and “Meşterul Manole”, play a central role in this traditional culture. Folk traditions, including ceramics and weaving, continue to be practiced in rural areas…
Mainly known for its world-class wine, ancient monasteries and unspoiled open countryside – and for its distinct lack of crowds.
Without a doubt, ‘mămăliga,’ or polenta Moldova’s best-known and most traditional dish. Polenta is made from corn flour, to which a little butter is added. It is generally served with sheep’s cheese or cottage cheese and sour cream, is.
Flagship moldovan Dishes
- Sarmale are sauerkraut or vine leaves filled with rice, vegetables and meat. …
- Plăcintă (Stuffed Pies) …
- Watermelon pickles. …
- Traditional desserts. …
Historically, Monaco was part of France, but in 1215, it became a colony of Genoa through a land grant from Emperor Henry VI. The Grimaldi family settled in Monaco in 1297 and ancestors of the family have controlled the principality for over 715 years now.
Monaco was ruled by the Genoese from medieval times and by the Grimaldi family from 1297. It became a constitutional monarchy in 1911. Today about 38,400 people live in the principality on an area of just 2 km² making it the most densely populated city on earth (see: Countries with the highest population density).
In addition to French, which is the official language, in Monaco there is “a lenga d’i nostri avi”, the language of our ancestors. This language has its roots in Genoese, but has evolved with time in accordance with the influence of neighboring tongues.
temperate Mediterranean climate
Monaco enjoys a temperate Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The average temperature is approximately 16.5°C and the seasonal amplitude is less than 15°C. The annual average rainfall is 714.6 mm with the highest precipitation occurring in autumn and spring.
There are several traditional festivals and rituals in Monaco. Saint Devote, the patron saint of Monaco, is venerated in a ritual held on 27 January every year. A torchlight procession, a religious ceremony and blessing mark the day that Saint Dévoe is believed to have arrived in Monaco.
Monaco has a Mediterranean, Roman Catholic culture emphasizing the family. Until the second half of the twentieth century, women’s roles revolved principally around family and household. Women were not active in politics until the 1960s when they first received the vote.
Stocafi, a dish of dried cod, stewed in tomato sauce and flavored with black olives and small vegetables is a local delicacy; Stuffed Zucchini Flowers, Truffle and Foie Gras Torte and Provençal-style Artichokes braised in wine with olive oil are other Monégasque favourites…
- Barbajuan (Swiss Chard Fritter)
- Bouillabaisse (Seafood Stew)
- Daube (Beef Stew)
- Pissaladiere (Anchovy Flatbread)
- Beignets de Fleurs de Courgettes (Fried Zucchini Flowers)
- Ratatouille (Vegetable Stew)
- Socca (Chickpea Crepes)
Tourte de Blettes (Vegetable Tart)
Montenegro’s independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1910, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, the kingdom became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together proclaimed a federation.
The Constitution of Montenegro from 2007 states that Montenegrin is the official language of the country, while Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian and Albanian are languages in official use.
Montenegro’s climate follows two distinct patterns: the coastal region has typically Mediterranean weather, with hot summers and mild winters. The interior of the country, however, has a sub-alpine climate, typified by warm summers and freezing winters.
A Montenegrin tradition made into law in Montenegro by King Nikola during his reign, consisting of newly-weds planting an olive tree on their wedding day as a symbol of marriage.
The culture of Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its history and geographical position would suggest. Montenegro’s culture has been influenced by the Serbian Empire, the Byzantine Empire, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Christianity, the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice, Austria-Hungary, and Yugoslavia.
9 traditional Montenegro food dishes to fall in love with
- Brav u Mlijeku (Lamb in Milk) Cooked in the highlands of northern Montenegro, Brav u Mlijeku is a popular staple in Montenegro cuisine. …
- Kačamak with kajmak (Balkan porridge) …
- Njeguski Steak. …
- Crni Rižot (Black Risotto) …
- Palačinke (Pancakes)
The history of the Netherlands extends back long before the founding of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon. For thousands of years, people have been living together around the river deltas of this section of the North Sea coast…
Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands, Belgium (Flanders) and Suriname. Dutch is also an official language of Aruba, Curaçao and St Maarten.
The Netherlands is located in the ‘temperate zone’. Throughout the country, mean winter temperatures are about 3°C and mean summer temperatures are around 17°C. Coastal regions have more hours of sunshine than inland regions and a relatively small annual and diurnal temperature range.
Sinterklaas. One traditional festivity in the Netherlands is the feast of Sinterklaas. It is celebrated on the evening before Sinterklaas’ birthday on December 5, especially in families with little children
Dutch painting and crafts are world renowned, and Dutch painters are among the greatest the world has ever known. The Dutch themselves take great pride in their cultural heritage, and the government is heavily involved in subsidizing the arts, while abjuring direct artistic control of cultural enterprises.
The Dutch eat relatively early starting from 5 to 7 p.m., families mostly eat together around the dinner table. A typical Dutch dinner meal consists of potatoes, meat and vegetables, served with gravy. Dinner is often followed by a dessert in the form of yogurt or coffee.
Top ten traditional Dutch foods
- Probably one of the most famous Dutch dishes, Poffertjes are small pancakes, baked in an iron skillet, and traditionally served with melted butter and dusted with icing sugar. …
- Hollandse nieuwe haring. …
31) North Macedonia
North Macedonia,[c] officially the Republic of North Macedonia,[d] is a landlocked country in Southeast Europe. It shares land borders with Kosovo[e] to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west. It constitutes approximately the northern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia. Skopje, the capital and largest city, is home to a quarter of the country’s 1.83 million people.
The official language of North Macedonia is Macedonian. It is spoken by roughly two-thirds of the population natively, and as a second language by much of the rest of the population. Albanian has co-official status. It is the largest minority language…
Annual mean temperatures in Republic of North Macedonia range from approximately 8°C in the north-west regions to 15°C in central regions. The coldest month is January, and on average July is the hottest month.
The popular culture of North Macedonia is a fascinating blend of local tradition and imported influence. Folk music and folk dancing are still popular, and rock and pop music are ubiquitous. Icon painting and wood carving both have long histories in North Macedonia.
Cabbage rolls with meat and rice, or as Macedonians call it: sarma, is one of the country’s most popular foods. It is a winter dish made of fermented cabbage leaves, rice, and ground beef. However, it can be eaten all year round.
- Lutenica. NORTH MACEDONIA. …
- Sweet Pastry. Maznik. NORTH MACEDONIA. …
- Pinđur. NORTH MACEDONIA. …
- Chomlek. Bitola Municipality. …
- Cold Soup. Tarator. NORTH MACEDONIA. …
- Savory Pastry. Zelnik. NORTH MACEDONIA. …
- Ground Meat Dish. Sarma. …
- Savory Pie. Pastrmajlija.
People began settling in Norway very early – in 9000 BC, in fact. This was after the end of the first ice age, so it was now an inhabitable location. Settlers survived by hunting and fishing animals such as seal, deer, elk and whales. Farming didn’t become prominent until 500 BC, which was known as the bronze age.
Norway has two official languages: Norwegian and Sami. There are two main dialects of Norwegian: Bokmål and Nynorsk. They’re quite different. Most international students choose to learn Bokmål as it’s the more widely spoken dialect.
Most of Norway has a maritime climate with mild winters and cool summers. Because of the influence of the North Atlantic Ocean, Norway has a much warmer climate than its latitudinal position would indicate.
Norwegian Traditions you should know
The most famous custom in Norway, or at least one of the most popular ones, is wearing a Bunad, during the official celebrations like May 17th, the Constitution Day in Norway.
- Dressing in the national costume. Bunads Norwegian women costumes. …
- Going all out for Norwegian constitution day. …
- The Norwegian diet. …
- The Norwegians’ wedding traditions. …
- Buying of alcohol from the state. …
- The dominant religion of Norway. …
- Partying before exams. …
- Easter celebrations
Norwegians tend to have a strong sense of history and civic engagement and on special occasions, many Norwegians wearing traditional clothing, or bunad. In Norwegian culture, some of the most important values are tolerance, respect and equality.
Norwegians eat a lot of seafood dishes including fish soup called Fiskesuppe and fish cakes called Fiskekaker. They also eat brown cheese called Brunost and hot dogs called Pølser. What food is Norway famous for? Norway’s most famous food is its brown cheese called Brunost…
Norwegian Food: Popular and Traditional Dishes
- 1 – Fårikål – Mutton and Cabbage.
- 2 – Lapskaus – Stew.
- 3 – Kjøttkaker – Meatballs.
- 4 – Smalahove – Sheep’s Head.
- 5 – Rømmegrøt – Sour Cream Porridge.
- 6 – Raspeball – Potato Dumpling.
- 7 – Pinnekjøtt – Dried Lamb Ribs.
The history of Poland spans over a thousand years, from medieval tribes, Christianization and monarchy; through Poland’s Golden Age, expansionism and becoming one of the largest European powers; to its collapse and partitions, two world wars, communism, and the restoration of democracy.
The country’s official language, Polish (together with other Lekhitic languages and Czech, Slovak, and Upper and Lower Sorbian), belongs to the West Slavic branch of Slavic languages.
Poland is located in a moderate climate zone and is dominated by four distinct seasons, Autumn from September to November; Winter from December to February; Spring from March to May; and Summer from June to August.
Poland is a country full of unique traditions and customs, especially those rooted in the Catholic faith. One of the most important holidays is that of Easter.
7 unique Polish traditions to savour
- The drowning of Marzanna.
- Leaving an empty chair on Christmas eve.
- Kanapki, the open sandwich.
- Poprawiny, a second wedding party.
- Śmigus Dyngus, Wet Monday.
- Sto Lat, a birthday blessing.
- Tłusty Czwartek, Fat Thursday.
- Zaduszki, All Souls Day.
The culture of Poland (Polish: Kultura Polski) is the product of its geography and distinct historical evolution, which is closely connected to an intricate thousand-year history. Polish culture forms an important part of western civilization and the western world, with significant contributions to art, music, philosophy, mathematics, science, politics and literature.
Its unique character developed as a result of its geography at the confluence of various European regions. It is theorised and speculated that ethnic Poles and the other Lechites (Kashubians and Silesians) are the combination of descendants of West Slavs and people indigenous to the region including Celts, Balts and Germanic tribes which were gradually Polonized after Poland’s Christianization by the Catholic Church in the 10th century
The most recommendable dishes are: bigos, kotlet schabowy, pierogi and gołąbki (see below). Poles boast that their two basic products are bread and sausages. The most typical ingredients used in Polish cuisine are sauerkraut, beetroot, cucumbers (gherkins), sour cream, kohlrabi, mushrooms, sausages and smoked sausage.
Traditional Polish Christmas Dishes?
- Pierniki – Polish Gingerbread. …
- Barszcz Czerwone Z Uszkami – Red Borscht With Dumplings. …
- Zupa Grzybowa – Dried Mushroom Soup. …
- Kapusta z Grochem – Cabbage With Split Peas. …
- Jarzynowa Sałatka – Vegetable Salad. …
- Karp – Carp. …
- Sledzie – Herring.
Portugal was founded in 1143, year of the Zamora’s Treaty signing. The treaty, agreed upon by D. Afonso Henriques, the first King of Portugal, and Alphonse the VII of León and Castile, recognized Portugal as an independent kingdom. In 1179 that status was confirmed by Pope Alexander the III.
Portuguese is currently the fifth most spoken language in the world and an official language of Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cabo Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and East Timor.
Although Portugal has a coastline that faces the Atlantic Ocean, its climate is very much like that of most Mediterranean countries. This means it’s hot in the summer and temperate in the winter, which makes it popular with tourists looking for some winter sunshine.
There are festivals of bread, olive oil, garlic, cheese, and wine, among others, with groups performing traditional dance and song. Some holidays mark political events in the country’s history, while a couple honor Mary, the mother of Jesus.
The Portuguese have an open-minded society but place a greater importance on religious values than those in other western European nations. In Portuguese culture, people and relationships are considered more important than time, so punctuality is not as emphasized.
The national dish of Portugal, bacalhau is dried and salted codfish, which is usually soaked in milk or water before cooking. The Portuguese have been eating bacalhau since the 16th century when their fishing boats brought it back from Newfoundland.
- Pastel de nata (custard tart) …
- Polvo à Lagareiro (octopus with olive oil and potatoes) …
- Porco preto (Iberian black pork) …
- Arroz de pato (duck rice) …
- Sardinhas assadas (grilled sardines) …
- Francesinha (“Little Frenchie”) …
- Arroz de marisco (seafood rice) …
- Açorda (bread soaked in broth)
is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, and the Black Sea to the southeast…
Romanian is the official and main language of Romania and Moldova. As a minority language it is spoken by stable communities in the countries surrounding Romania, and by the large Romanian diaspora. In total, it is spoken by 28–29 million people as an L1+L2 language, of whom c. 24 million are native speakers.
Romania has a relatively mild climate, with average temperatures of 2-3ºС in the mountains and 11-12ºС in the plains. Climate variability is linked with its geological sub-state, which includes coastal, plain areas and mountains.
Romania’s rich folk traditions have been nourished by many sources, some of which predate the Roman occupation. Traditional folk arts include wood carving, ceramics, weaving, and embroidery of costumes, household decorations, dance, and richly varied folk music.
Romania is a hierarchical society where age and position are respected. Older people are viewed as wise since they have earned life experience. Romanians expect the most senior person, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group.
Sarmale is ground pork and rice, wrapped and cooked in cabbage leaves. It’s considered a Romanian National Dish. Romanians claim this version as 100% Romanian, though it could possibly be derived from a similar Turkish dish.
Traditional and Popular Romanian Foods
- 1 – Ciorba de Burta (Traditional Tripe Soup) …
- 2 – Ciorba Radauteana (Radauti Soup) …
- 3 – Mici / Mititei (Romanian Meat Rolls) …
- 4 – Sarmale (Cabbage Rolls or Stuffed Vine Leaves) …
- 5 – Zacusca (Romanian Vegetable Spread) …
- 6 – Mamaliga (Polenta) …
- 7 – Salata Boeuf (Boeuf salad)
The history of Russia begins with the histories of the overlordship of the Mongols. After the 13th century, Moscow became a political and cultural magnet for the unification of Russian lands. By the end of the 15th century, many of the petty principalities around Moscow had been united with the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
The Russian language is the principal state and cultural language of Russia. Russian is the primary language of the majority of people in Russia. It is also used as a second language in other former republics of the Soviet Union. It belongs to the eastern branch of the Slavic family of languages.
Russia’s climate ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia, and subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north. Winters vary from cool along the Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia. Summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along the Arctic coast.
The Russians still celebrate pagan holidays, many people believe in numerous omens and legends. Christianity gave Russians such great holidays as Easter and Christmas, and Paganism – Maslenitsa (Shrovetide) and Ivan Kupala. Old traditions are passed on from generation to generation.
Ethnic Identities and National Unity
Though most people are Slavic, many others have Turkic and Mongol heritage. Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash and Chechens are some of the biggest ethnic minorities. Many people from minority groups continue to hold their ethnic identity and cultural traditions close.
Pelmeni is considered the national dish of Russia. They are pastry dumplings are typically filled with minced meat and wrapped in a thin, pasta-like dough. They can be served alone, slathered in butter and topped with sour cream, or in a soup broth. A favorite in Russia and Eastern Europe!
List of traditional food…
- Blini (Russian pancakes) Russian cuisine was heavily influenced by religious traditions. …
- Beef Stroganoff. …
- Kasha (Porridge) …
Historical Background of Spain
Spain has been invaded and inhabited by many different peoples. The peninsula was originally settled by groups from North Africa and western Europe, including the Iberians, Celts, and Basques. Throughout antiquity it was a constant point of attraction for the civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean.
Spanish, or Castilian, is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin spoken on the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. Today, it is a global language with about 486 million native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spain. Spanish is the official language of 20 countries.
In fact, Spain is the most climatically diverse country in Europe. For the most part, the climate is temperate with hot summers and cold winters inland and cloudy, mild summers and cool winters along the coast.
These fiestas have traditional foods, fireworks, dancing, handmade decorations, parades, concerts, and theater. Other traditions like the running of the bulls of San Fermín in Pamplona, and the tomato fights of la Tomatina are experiences that draw millions of people and tourists to celebrate Spanish culture
Spain is famous around the world for Flamenco music and dance, bullfights, fantastic beaches, and lots of sunshine. But what people sometimes forget is that Spain has been one of the cultural centers of Europe for thousands of years. Spain has an extraordinary artistic heritage.
A typical Spanish dinner will have a main dish, such as a seafood dish, vegetarian dish, or roasted meat. This is either stuffed in a sandwich or served with a portion of rice. Common sides include a green salad, omelette, fried potatoes, grilled vegetables, cold cuts, or cheese.
Don’t leave Spain without trying…
- The reddest, ripest tomatoes, olive oil, garlic, bread, peppers and cucumber are blended until silky smooth, then chilled and poured into bowls or glasses. …
- Tortilla Española. …
- Gambas al ajillo. …
- Tostas de tomate y jamón. …
- Patatas bravas. …
- Pollo al ajillo. …
38.) San Marino
San Marino claims to be the oldest constitutional republic in the world, founded in September 301 by Marinus of Rab, a Christian stonemason fleeing the religious persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian. San Marino’s constitution, dating back to 1600, is the world’s oldest written constitution still in effect.
San Marino has never been part of Italy due to its long history of independence, and it has been able to maintain its independence throughout the centuries by remaining neutral in times of war and forming alliances with other countries.
What is San Marino known for?
San Marino is said to be the world’s oldest surviving republic. Tourism dominates the economy of microstate, which plays host to more than three million visitors every year. Postage stamps and coins – keenly sought by collectors – are important sources of revenue
Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Together with Sardinian, Italian is the least divergent language from Latin. Spoken by about 85 million people, Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, and Vatican City.
San Marino has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), with some continental influences. It has warm to hot summers and cool winters, typical of inland areas of the central Italian Peninsula.
Like Italy, San Marino is a staunch Roman Catholic territory. Over 95% of Sammarinese go to Catholic churches and observe the customs and traditions set by the Vatican. When it comes to sports, Sammarinese are big fans of the sports like soccer, basketball and volleyball
San Marino Facts and Culture
- Cultural Attributes: Respect toward the elderly is an important tradition Sammarinese are open and friendly. …
- Family: Family is important and families are very close knit. …
- Personal Appearance: Western style of clothing is worn. …
- Recreation: The national sport is Archery.
Local savoury dishes include fagioli con le cotiche, a Christmas bean and bacon soup; pasta e ceci, a chickpea and noodle soup with garlic and rosemary; nidi di rondine, a baked pasta dish with smoked ham, beef, cheese, and a tomato sauce; and roast rabbit with fennel.
Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two uprisings in 1804 (led by Đorđe Petrović – Karađorđe) and 1815 (led by Miloš Obrenović), although Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade, until 1867.
Serbian is the official language of the Republic of Serbia, and it is also spoken by minorities living in other countries such as Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Montenegro. Along with Bosnian, Croatian, Slovene, and Montenegrin, Serbian belongs to the western group of the South Slavic Languages
Serbia has a moderate continental climate. July is the warmest month, and January is the coldest. June is the month with most rainfall, with an average of 13% of the total annual rainfall. The months with the least rain are February and October.
Slava (Serbian Cyrillic: Слава, lit. ‘Glory, Celebration’, pronounced [ˈslâʋa]) is a tradition of the ritual of glorification of one’s family’s patron saint, found mainly among Serbian Orthodox Christians. The family celebrates the Slava annually on the saint’s feast day.
Five Serbian Traditions – Get to Know Serbia
- It’s not good to enter the house with your arms crossed. …
- If you hiccup, someone is talking about you. …
- If you bite your tongue, someone lied to you. …
- If your left palm is itching, you will get money, but if it’s the right one then you will give money.
Serbs are very social and outgoing, and they tend to be very open with each other about personal, emotional issues. Soccer, tennis, and basketball are the most popular sports and young Serbs also enjoy hanging out at cafes and local neighborhood restaurants.
National dishes of Serbia include sarma (a mix of ground pork or beef with rice rolled in leaves of cabbage), gibanica (an egg and cheese pie made with filo dough), pljeskavica (a ground beef or pork patty), ćevapi (grilled meat), paprikaš (a soup made of paprika), gular ( soup of meat and vegetables usually seasoned …
Present-day Slovakia was settled by Slavic Slovaks about the 6th century. They were politically united in the Moravian empire in the 9th century. In 907, the Germans and the Magyars conquered the Moravian state, and the Slovaks fell under Hungarian control from the 10th century up until 1918.
language of the Czech–Slovak group, written in Latin script. It is part of the Indo-European language family, and is one of the Slavic languages, which are part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch.Slovak, is a West Slavic
The country can be described as having a fairly typical European continental climate with warm, dry summers and cold winters. Autumn and winter stretch from around September to May, with January its coldest month, and spring and summer from May to August with, July the warmest month.
8 Traditions Only Slovaks Will Understand
- Keeping fish in the bathtub before Christmas. …
- Taking a tree from the forest to decorate for May Day. …
- Cold water and wicker whips for Easter. …
- A wedding is not a wedding without a great moderator. …
- Drinking herbal liquor in the mountains. …
- Every meal starts with soup.
The culture of Slovakia has various folk traditions influenced by its location in Central Europe. It shares similarities with Czech, Austrian, German, Hungarian and Ukrainian culture.
The national dish of Slovakia is bryndzové halušky, which is a type of dumpling made with grated raw potatoes and flour, mixed with a special type of sheep cheese called bryndza. The dish is often served with bacon or sausage and is a staple of Slovak cuisine.
Traditional Slovak Dishes You Must Try
- Dumplings with sheep’s cheese (bryndzové halušky) …
- Pierogis stuffed with bryndza (bryndzové pirohy) …
- Cabbage soup (kapustnica) …
- Pork with dumplings and cabbage (Vero knedlo zelo) …
- Goulash soup (gulášová polievka) …
- Fried cheese with French fries and tartar sauce (vyprážaný syr)
A country in Central Europe, Slovenia is known for its mountains, lakes, picturesque beauty, etc. Most of the people plan to spend their holidays in this country as there are a lot of nice places to visit in Slovenia. There are some traces of 20th-century architecture that also attract people from all over the world.
Slovenian is the official language of the Republic of Slovenia. At the same time, it is the mother tongue of around 2.4 million people, of whom around 1.85 million live in Slovenia. Slovenian is an inherently coherent language with social and structural integrity and open to evolving further.
Three climate types are found in the territory of Slovenia: sub-Mediterranean, Alpine, and continental. Average annual temperature in the sub-Mediterranean climate type is 12°C, in the lower regions of central Slovenia it is between 8°C and 1°C, while at the highest peaks it never exceeds 0°C.
8 Traditions Only Slovenians Can Understand
- A Small Gift
- Roasted Potatoes
It is incredibly diverse for the country’s small size, spanning the southern portion of Central Europe, being the melting pot of Slavic, Germanic and Romance cultures while encompassing the Eastern Alps, Adriatic sea, Panonian plain and a part of Balkan peninsula.
9 super tasty Slovenian foods to try
- Bite-sized and bursting with all manner of exotic fillings, the humble Slovenian dumpling is as close to ‘national dish’ status in Slovenia as any other traditional Slovenian food. …
- Kremna rezina.
- Kranjska klobasa.
- Idrijski žlikrofi
The history of Sweden can be traced back to the melting of the Northern Polar Ice Caps. From as early as 12000 BC, humans have inhabited this area. Throughout the Stone Age, between 8000 BC and 6000 BC, early inhabitants used stone-crafting methods to make tools and weapons for hunting, gathering and fishing as means of survival. Written sources about Sweden before AD 1000 are rare and short, usually written by outsiders. It was not until the 14th century that longer historical texts were produced in Sweden. It is therefore usually accepted that Swedish recorded history, in contrast with pre-history, starts around the 11th century, when sources are common enough that they can be contrasted with each other.
Swedish is a Scandinavian language like Danish and Norwegian, and is also very similar to English and German. The Swedish alphabet is like the English one, but it has three extra letters – å, ä, and ö. words and their Swedish equivalent. Swedes love to use English words. Here are some English
Sweden’s proximity to the North Atlantic and prevailing south-westerly to westerly winds result in a climate that is mild in the winter months, but the northernmost part of the country has a sub-Arctic climate with long, cold and snowy winters.
Midsummer and Christmas are the most important celebrations in Sweden.
What are the most popular traditions in Sweden?
A year of festivities and celebrations in Sweden.
- The crayfish party.
- Halloween the Swedish way.
- All Saints’ Day in Sweden.
- The Lucia tradition.
- Walpurgis Night.
- Sweden 500.
One of the key characteristics of Swedish culture is that Swedes are egalitarian in nature, humble and find boasting absolutely unacceptable. In many ways, Swedes prefer to listen to others as opposed to ensuring that their own voice is heard. When speaking, Swedes speak softly and calmly.
Internationally, the most renowned Swedish culinary tradition is the smörgåsbord and, at Christmas, the julbord, including well-known Swedish dishes such as gravlax and meatballs. In Sweden, traditionally, Thursday has been “soup day” because the maids had half the day off and soup was easy to prepare in advance.
Popular & Traditional Swedish Food
- 1 – Köttbullar – Meatballs. …
- 2 – Räkmacka – Shrimp Sandwich. …
- 3 – Smulpaj – Crumble. …
- 4 – Semla – Sweet Roll. …
- 5 – Falukorv – Falu Sausage. …
- 6 – Ärtsoppa & Pannkakor – Pea Soup & Pancakes. …
- 7 – Sill – Pickled Herring. …
- 8 – Smörgåstårta – Swedish Sandwich Cake.
Switzerland was formed in 1291 by an alliance of cantons against the Habsburg dynasty—the Confoederatio Helvetica (or Swiss Confederation), from which the abbreviation CH for Switzerland derives—though only in 1848, when a new constitution was adopted, was the present nation formed.
Over 60% of the Swiss population speak German as their main language. They do not speak standard German but rather various Alemmanic dialects collectively called Swiss German. French is the main language in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, known as the Romandie.
The climate is moderate with no excessive heat, cold or humidity. From July to August the daytime temperature range is 18 to 28 °C (65° – 82° F) and from January to February the range is -2 to 7 °C (28° – 45° F). In spring and autumn, the daytime temperature range is 8 to 15 °C (46° – 59° F).
What are Switzerland traditions?
Both typical customs of mountainous areas, they are part of many festivals. Playing the alphorn, yodelling and flag throwing are traditions that are practised almost all over Switzerland. FDFA, Presence Switzerland. Customs and traditions are highly valued in Switzerland and are as diverse as they are rich.
In the culture of Switzerland, friendships tend to be very close and long-lasting. Teenagers are usually very active and participate in sports and clubs organized by the school or community. Since the Alps cover more than half of the country, they often go skiing and mountain climbing
Switzerland’s most famous culinary tradition is Swiss Fondue, a fun way to get social at the table with friends and family. The bubbling pot arrives at the table, an addictive sauce of Emmental, Gruyere and white wine, which is enjoyed with cubes of bread, steamed potatoes, gherkins and pickled onions.
Ukraine had experienced a brief period of independence in 1918–20, but portions of western Ukraine were ruled by Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia in the period between the two World Wars, and Ukraine thereafter became part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (S.S.R.).
Ukrainian, the official language, belongs with Russian and Belarusian to the East Slavic branch of the Slavic language family. Ukrainian is closely related to Russian but also has distinct similarities to the Polish language.
Ukraine has a mostly temperate climate, with the exception of the Southern Coast of Crimea which has a subtropical Mediterranean climate. The country enjoys sufficient amount of sunshine and year-round rainfall, highly concentrated during the summer months (May to August).
The country’s strong tradition of folk art and embroidery continues to this day, with Ukrainian embroidery often considered an art form in itself. Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by the Ukrainian Greek Catholicism, Ruthenian Greek Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Church and traditions from Slavic mythology
Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by the Ukrainian Greek Catholicism, Ruthenian Greek Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Church and traditions from Slavic mythology. Prior to the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian culture has had heavy influence from other East Slavic cultures such as Russian and Belarusian culture.
The most famous traditional Ukrainian dishes are borshch, varenyky, holubtsi, Chicken Kyiv, banosh, and syrnyky, and it surely is not an exhaustive list. Borshch (sometimes written as borsch, borsht, bortsch, or borshch) is a sour soup with distinctive red colour.
On 1 January 1801, the first day of the 19th century, the Great Britain and Ireland joined to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was brought about by the Act of Union 1800, creating the “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland”.
However, wherever you go in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales you will find that English is the main language and that people speak English fluently.
The UK’s climate is maritime, moist and temperate, with a moderate annual temperature range. Average annual precipitation in the UK typically ranges from approximately 800 mm to 1,400 mm.
Countless British customs have been established for centuries and are well-loved and widely celebrated. From Hogmanay and Burns Night to afternoon tea, the Queen’s Speech and Bonfire Night, there are tons of occasions to celebrate in the United Kingdom
Most Brits drink tea for breakfast, more tea during work breaks, tea before bed, tea when the neighbours visit, tea during a meeting, tea to help decide how to solve a crisis … you get the idea. And let’s not forget the great British art of “dunking”: this means dipping sugary biscuits into tea before eating them
10 things you should know about UK culture
- 1) Brits love to apologise
- 2) Brits are fussy about queuing. …
- 3) Talking about the weather is a national sport. …
- 4) Brits love to drink tea. …
- 5) British spelling is different to American spelling. …
- 6) Curry is the national dish. …
- 7) The UK is made up of four countries.
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